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[论文写作与投稿]

原创研究论文摘要的重要性

一只虫子小木虫认证明星 VIP会员认证 发表于 2017-3-28 21:20  
查看: 100205|回复: 10|显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
很多读者可能只会阅读你的论文摘要。而另外一些读者,摘要则会引导他们阅读论文全文。无论哪种情况,摘要都显得尤为重要。摘要的目的在于,读者能够很容易地、快速地掌握文章的关键信息。然而,写出一个好的摘要的过程,可能让人望而生畏。


好的摘要具备如下一些普遍特征


1、简洁、内容紧凑。简单化!

2、清楚地阐明研究的假设或目的

3、避免描述不必要的实验细节或统计方法

4、不含参考文献、表格或图形

5、极少或几乎不含缩写词语

6、以简单易懂的方式简明扼要地陈述论文的主要发现

7、具有与假设或目的相关的简明、清楚的结论

8、语法正确


遵从期刊关于摘要的要求


1、结构化与非结构化格式

如果是结构化的,请使用期刊所建议的标题


2、字数限制

如果超出字数,期刊可能拒绝接收该文章

与研究的重要信息不相关的内容通常可以省略,如

不必要的文献引用

不必要的方法细节

与研究目的无关的结果

与结果不直接相关的结论

不必要的赘述

使用缩写的限制

极少或几乎不允许使用缩略语


结构化与非结构化的摘要


结构化摘要比非结构化摘要日益常见

最常使用的结构是IMRAD(即引言、方法、结果和讨论)格式

结构化摘要使得临床方面的读者和审稿者更容易识别出最重要的信息

结构化摘要通常比传统的摘要篇幅更长,但它们可能包含更丰富的信息并易于理解


下面是一个非结构化摘要和重写后的结构化摘要的例子:


非结构化摘要
Combining antibiotics with plant sterols that have antibacterial activity is amethod of increasing the effectiveness of the antibiotics. In this study, wesynthesized α-spinasterol from commercially available stigmasterol by a novelmethod in order to increase its yield, and tested the combination of theα-spinasterol with ceftiofur in vitro against four strains of pathogenicbacteria. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of stigmasterol,spinasterol and ceftiofur against Escherichia coli, Streptococcus pneumoniaeCAU0070, Salmonella pullorum cvcc533 and Staphylococcus aureus weredetermined with a tube dilution method. Results showed that MICs ofα-spinasterol against the four pathogenic microorganisms were the same for all(256 μg/ml), or one-half that of stigmasterol (512 μg/ml), and much greaterthan the MIC of ceftiofur (0.125 to 4 μg/ml). The combination of α-spinasteroland ceftiofur were strongly synergetic against the four bacterial strains; thefractional inhibitory concentrations on E. coli, S. pneumoniaeCAU0070, S. pullorum cvcc533, and S. aureus were 0.375, 0.375, 0.533and 0.5, respectively. In time-kill analyses, at concentrations above the MICs,ceftiofur exhibited only time-dependency against the four pathogenic microganisms,whereas ceftiofur in combination with α-spinasterol exhibited time-dependencyand concentration-dependency. We conclude that ceftiofur combined withα-spinasterol, synthetized from stigmasterol by our method, is effectiveagainst four pathogenic bacterial strains in vitro. Effectiveness of thiscombination in vivo deserves investigation.


重写后的结构化摘要
Background/Aim. Combining antibiotics with plant sterols that haveantibacterial activity is a method of increasing the effectiveness of theantibiotics. In this study, we synthesized α-spinasterol from commerciallyavailable stigmasterol by a novel method in order to increase its yield.
Methods. The minimum inhibitory concentration of stigmasterol,spinasterol and ceftiofur against Escherichia coli, Streptococcus pneumoniaeCAU0070, Salmonella pullorum cvcc533 and Staphylococcus aureuswere determined with a tube dilution method.
Results. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of α-spinasterolagainst the four pathogenic microorganisms were the same for all (256 μg/ml),or one-half that of stigmasterol (512 μg/ml), and much greater than the minimalinhibitory concentration of ceftiofur (0.125 to 4 μg/ml). The combination ofα-spinasterol and ceftiofur were strongly synergetic against the four bacterialstrains; the fractional inhibitory concentrations on E. coli, S.pneumoniae CAU0070, S. pullorum cvcc533, and S. aureus were 0.375,0.375, 0.533 and 0.5, respectively. In time-kill analyses, at concentrationsabove the minimum inhibitory concentrations, ceftiofur exhibited onlytime-dependency against the four pathogenic microganisms, whereas ceftiofur incombination with α-spinasterol exhibited time-dependency andconcentration-dependency.
Conclusions. Ceftiofur combined with α-spinasterol, synthetizedfrom stigmasterol by our method, is effective against four pathogenic bacterialstrains in vitro. Effectiveness of this combination in vivo deservesinvestigation.


结构化摘要的构成


1、引言

介绍研究的简要背景:描述研究的目的,为什么这样做,重点又是什么


2、方法

描述研究设计和方法,如:回顾性病例对照研究、随机对照研究


3、结果

给出与目的相关的具体结果

避免出现与目的无关的结果

给出真实数据,必要时给出置信区间和p值

避免模糊表达,如“相对较大”或“明显差异”


4、结论

与研究目的直接相关

简洁陈述可以直接从研究中导出的结论

不夸大研究的重要性或价值

简要地解释研究结果和影响,以及对开展进一步研究的建议

蓝冰依恋 发表于 2017-3-29 00:32   显示全部楼层
说的非常好
刘刘球110 发表于 2017-3-29 02:08   显示全部楼层
很好的哦
clairewang 发表于 2017-3-29 02:59   显示全部楼层
楼主真厉害啊
西又米先森 发表于 2017-3-29 05:43   显示全部楼层
不错不错
tangfenggong 发表于 2017-3-30 01:27   显示全部楼层
难得一见的好帖
陶振 发表于 2017-3-30 01:39   显示全部楼层
在小木虫论坛混了这么久了,见到这么给力的帖子,楼主加油~
mxtyzx 发表于 2017-3-30 01:51   显示全部楼层
你刚才说什么,我没看清楚,请再说一遍!
漪缕春风 发表于 2017-3-30 02:53   显示全部楼层
以后多分享一些这样的有价值的帖子啊
942968555 发表于 2017-3-30 08:05   显示全部楼层
很好的哦
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